What is Obesity

A certain amount of body fat is necessary for storing energy, heat insulation, shock absorption, and other functions. However, when the fat exceeds the amount that is necessary it leads to a condition called obesity.
In general, overweight and obesity indicates a weight which is greater than what is considered healthy. Obesity is a complex disorder in which excess body fat has accumulated excessively so that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to increased disease incidence and decreased life expectancy.
People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI) is over 30 kg/m2, with the range 25–30 kg/m2 defined as overweight. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, and certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.
Obesity is one of the most pervasive, chronic diseases in need of new strategies for medical treatment and prevention. As a leading cause of world’s mortality, morbidity, disability, healthcare utilization and healthcare costs. The high prevalence of obesity continues to strain the healthcare systems.
Basically, overweight is a result of too much intake of food or ah failure of the body to utilize the energy for daily body use. As a result, these extra energies are stored as fat and although there is no specific food that can really pinpoint where fat will be built up in the body, the uniqueness of each person dictates where or in what areas of the body these fats will be stored.

Types Of Obesity

According to fat distribution, obesity is classified as central (android) and peripheral (gynoid) type. In the central type of obesity, the fat occupies the abdominal region of a subject. In the peripheral type, fat is accumulated around the hip and thigh areas; this means that the hips are almost rounded and the buttocks looks larger as compared to normal subject.

Central Obesity

Central obesity is also known as Abdominal Obesity or Android obesity. It is when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health.

Peripheral Obesity

Peripheral obesity is also known as Gynoid obesity and for the Gynoid type of obesity or fat distribution, the excess fat are being deposited somewhere at the hip and thigh area. Their hips are rounded and their buttocks generally look larger than normal.

Causes Of Obesity

The balance between calorie intake and energy expenditure determines a person’s weight. If a person eats more calories than he or she burns (metabolizes), then person gains weight (the body will store the excess energy as fat). If a person eats few calories than he or she metabolizes, he or she will lose weight. Therefore, the most common causes of Obesity are overeating and physical inactivity.

Genetics:

A person is more likely to develop obesity if one or both parents are obese. Genetics also affects the hormones involved in fat regulation.

Overeating:

Overeating leads to Obesity, especially if the diet is high in fat. Foods which is high in fat or sugar (for example, fast food, fried food, and sweets) have high energy density (food that have a lot of calories in a small amount). Epidemiologic studies have shown that diets high in fat contribute to weight gain.

Frequency of eating

The relationship between frequency of eating (how often you eat) and weight is somewhat controversial. There are many reports of overweight people eating less often than people with normal weight. Scientists have observed that people who eat small meals four or five times daily, have lower cholesterol levels and lower and/or more stable blood sugar levels than people who eat less frequently (two or three large meals daily). One possible explanation is that small frequent meals produce stable insulin levels, whereas large meals cause large spikes of insulin after meals.

Physical inactivity

Sedentary people burn few calories than people who are active. Various studies have shown that low physical inactivity was strongly correlated with weight gain in both sexes.

 

Complications Of Obesity

Obesity is not just a cosmetic consideration; it is harmful to one’s health. In the United States, roughly 112,000 deaths per year are directly related to obesity, and most of these deaths are of patients with a BMI over 30. For patients with a BMI over 40, life expectancy is reduced significantly.

Overweight and Obesity-Related Health Problems in Adults

  • Coronary Heart Disease
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Stroke
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Abnormal Blood Fats
  • Metabolic Syndrome
  • Cancer
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Sleep Apnea
  • Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
  • Reproductive Problems
  • Gallstones

Assessment Of Obesity

Measuring a person’s body fat percentage is not easy and is often inaccurate if the methods are not monitored carefully.

BMI

The body mass index (BMI) is now the measurement of choice for many physicians and researchers studying obesity. The BMI uses a mathematical formula that accounts for both a person’s weight and height.
The BMI measurement, however, poses some of the same problems as the weight-for-height tables. Not everyone agrees on the cutoff points for “healthy” versus “unhealthy” BMI ranges. BMI also does not provide information on a person’s percentage of body fat.
However, BMI is a useful general guideline and is a good estimator of body fat for most adults 19 and 70 years of age. It may not be an accurate measurement of body fat for bodybuilders, certain athletes, and pregnant women.
The BMI equals a person’s weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (BMI = kg/m2).
The World Health Organization uses a classification system using the BMI to define overweight and obesity.

BMI (kg/m2) Classification
from
up to
<
18.5
Underweight
18.5
25.0
Normal Weight
25.0
30.0
Overweight
30.0
35.0
Class I Obesity
35.0
40.0
Class II Obesity
40.0
And Above
Class III Obesity

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