Women with PCOS have more androgens (MALE HORMONE) than normal. Higher than normal androgen levels in women can prevent the ovaries from releasing an egg (ovulation) during each menstrual cycle, and can cause extra hair growth and acne.
- Insulin is a hormone that controls how the food you eat is changed into energy. Insulin resistance is when the body’s cells do not respond normally to insulin. As a result, your insulin blood levels become higher than normal. Many women with PCOS have insulin resistance, especially those who have overweight or obesity, have unhealthy eating habits, do not get enough physical activity, and have a family history of diabetes (usually type 2 diabetes). Over time, insulin resistance can lead to type 2 diabetes.
- In women who have polycystic ovary syndrome, or PCOS, there is an imbalance in female sex hormones. The imbalance may prevent the development and release of mature eggs. Without a mature egg, neither ovulation or pregnancy can occur.
ABSENCE OF MENSTRUAL CYCLE:
- the ovaries do not produce enough hormones to mature the eggs causing the follicles to grow and fill up with fluid but ultimately when ovulation does not occur the follicles simply remain as cysts. When ovulation does not occur progesterone is also not produced. Multiple, small fluid-filled ovarian cysts and an excess of androgens (male hormones), both of which make normal periods unlikely.
- Elevated cholesterol, high blood pressure, increased insulin levels, and glucose intolerance are common occurrences in women with PCOS, all of which escalate the risk of developing diabetes and heart disease in affected individuals.
- PCOS makes it more difficult for the body to use the hormone insulin, which normally helps convert sugars and starches from foods into energy. This condition — called insulin resistance — can cause insulin and sugar — glucose — to build up in the bloodstream. High insulin levels increase the production of male hormones called androgens. High androgen levels lead to symptoms such as body hair growth, acne, irregular periods — and weight gain.
- PCOS raises our testosterone levels. It’s this high testosterone that causes the sebaceous glands to produce too much of the oily sebum, resulting in acne.